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RRC Program Home arrow Links Directory arrow Topical Link Collections Arrow/Bullet Image Disproportionate Representation - Indicator B 9&10 Arrow/Bullet Image State Guidance and Practices 
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Topical Link Collections / Disproportionate Representation - Indicator B 9&10 / State Guidance and Practices 
Several states have produced guidance for local agencies and/or have undertaken initiatives to reduce disproportionality.
State Definitions of Significant Disproportionality
This brief document produced by Project FORUM at NASDSE is a brief analysis of the criteria states use to determine if there is a disproportionately high or low number of students from a particular racial/ethnic group receiving special education services, assigned to a disability classification, or placed in an educational environment. (July 2007)

Alabama State-wide Special Education Agreement
Full text of a presentation by K.S. Devine, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justice, at the Minority Issues in Special Education Conference sponsored by the Civil Rights Project of Harvard University. The speaker called Alabama?s agreement a model for other States. (2001)

Overview of Illinois' Process for Determining and Addressing Disproportionality in Special Education
This document includes definitions, calculation methods and criteria, and information about how to determine inappropriate identification for Disproportionate Representation and Significant Disproportionality. Also included is information related to 15% set-aside and a flowchart which portrays the Illinois process.

Minority Disproportionality, Safe and Responsive Schools Project, Indiana Education Policy Center
The Indiana Disproportionality Project studied and addressed disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education over several years.

Kentucky’s Partnership for Minority Student Achievement
This initiative generated recommendations for school districts to use in reducing the minority student achievement gap. Pilot Partnership Schools in seven districts have led to further initiatives.

Minnesota Reducing Bias Manual
Representation by minority groups in special education in disproportionate numbers reveals potential system bias. Read about Minnesota?s process of reducing bias as presented in this manual.

New York Technical Assistance Center on Disproportionality
The Technical Assistance Center on Disproportionality (TACD), formerly known as Chapter 405, at the Metropolitan Center for Urban Education (Metro Center), is contracted through the New York State Office of Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with Disabilities (VESID). This project is developing, implementing, and assessing a process of providing comprehensive technical assistance and professional development training to New York State school districts that are addressing disproportionality.

North Carolina Disproportionality Report
This report examines the status of a particular racial/ethnic group of children receiving special education services based on their representation in the general school population. It also examines the status of a particular racial/ethnic group of children being identified in specific disability categories. Students in a particular racial/ethnic group who are represented at a higher percentage than other students in racial/ethnic groups when compared to their representation in the general school population are of major concern. Based on North Carolina's criteria for significant disproportionality, there are two disability categories where students of a particular racial/ethnic group are of major concern. Those disability categories are Educable Mental Disabilities (EMD) and Behavioral-Emotional Disabilities (BED).
Tennessee Comparison: Disproportionate Representation / Significant Disproportionality
This document is a side-by-side comparison of the federal regulations and reporting requirements for disproportionate representation and significant disproportionality. A PowerPoint presentation is also available.
Tennessee: Definition and Process: The Identification of Children as Children with Disabilities
This document addresses data review, examination, and analysis; defines significant disproportionality; describes the determination of significant disproportionality; and describes the determination of disproportionate representation. (2007)

Tennessee Disproportionality Self Assessments
This web page provides resources for districts, including a form for developing a Disproportionality Plan of Improvement. Each school district that meets the definition for Significant Disproportionality is required to review district practices, policies, and procedures employed in the identification of children with disabilities. The At Standards reviews found on this page contain detailed descriptions and evidence for each of the six focus areas that most directly impact the appropriate identification of students for services in special education and related services.
Texas Disproportionate Representation and Significant Disproportionality
This web page outlines how Texas implements the significant disproportionality requirement, including the current matrix for determining significant disproportionality. The 2005-06 Texas Disproportionate Representation Matrix reflects the criteria for identifying significant disproportionality.

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