Skip Navigation
RRC Program Menu
Adjust Font Size
Login Form

Forgotten your password?
No account yet? Create one
Culturally Responsive Educators and Schools Print E-mail

Culturally Responsive Educators and Schools:

Reports/Recommendations, Resources, and Guides
Updated in January 2009

(1) Cultural Competency (Guidelines for School Leaders).
(2) Making the Grade -- A Racial Justice Report Card.
(3) Unlearning ?Indian? Stereotypes -- DVD.

Titles are presented in alphabetical order.

A Challenge to Professionals: Developing Cultural Reciprocity with Culturally Diverse Families.
Focal Point. (2003).  Research and Training Center on Family Support and
Children?s Mental Health, University of Portland, Oregon.  M. Kalyanpur.

?Research indicates that many parents experience feelings of inadequacy and loss of control when dealing with schools in the process of ensuring an appropriate education for their child with special needs.  These feelings may be particularly pronounced for parents from diverse cultural backgrounds.  This article identifies some of these factors and describes strategies toward facilitating culturally reciprocal interactions in educational settings.?
Full text:
Also see related articles in this topical issue.

A Narrative on Whiteness and Multicultural Education
EdChange, Multicultural Pavilion, Saint Paul, Minnesota. (2000). P. C. Gorski.

In this very interesting paper, the author describes his journey to examining his ?whiteness? within the context in which he lives.  He says that ?engaging in the process of recording, then analyzing, my own racial identity narrative has been the most difficult, emotional, exhausting endeavor I have ever undertaken. It has also been the most important endeavor, digging into my personal history and piecing together the person ? the educator -- I am now. The result was a rich series of lessons about who I am and about the self-examining process in general.?  These lessons are summarized in the paper.
Full text:

Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools
Assembly of Alaska Native Educators, Anchorage, Alaska.
Published by the Alaska Native Knowledge Network

These ?standards have been developed by Alaska Native educators to provide a way for schools and communities to examine the extent to which they are attending to the educational and cultural well being of the students in their care. . . . Standards have been drawn up in five areas, including those for students, educators, curriculum, schools, and communities. . . . The standards included here serve as a complement to, not as a replacement for, those adopted by the State of Alaska.?
Full text ? Click PDF at the right:
Also see ? Click at the right for the full text of each:
Guidelines for Culturally Responsive School Boards:
Guidelines for Cross-Cultural Orientation Programs:
Guidelines for Nurturing Culturally Healthy Youth:
Guidelines for Respecting Cultural Knowledge:

American Indian Education KnowledgeBase
Mid-Continent Comprehensive Center, Norman, Oklahoma

?The American Indian Education KnowledgeBase is an online resource to aid education professionals in their efforts to better serve American Indian students and close the achievement gap American Indian students have faced in public, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and other schools.?  Contents cover (a) foundations and current status of Indian education; (b) American Indian cultures; (c) understanding your school and community; (d) utilizing culturally responsive teaching methodologies.

Bridging Cultures in Our Schools: New Approaches That Work.

WestEd, San Francisco, California.   (2000).
E. Trumbull, C. Rothstein-Fisch, & P. M. Greenfield.

Bridging Cultures was ?an action-research project that set out to find ways to improve cross-cultural communication in the classroom. . . . (The focus was on) supporting teachers to work specifically with immigrant Latino students and their families.?  Researchers also documented ?how understanding the individualism-collectivism framework can affect teachers, particularly: (a) the perspective teachers gain on their own culture and that of schools; (b) how this influences their thinking and practice; and (c) teachers? increased abilities to build relationships with families that support student success in school.? This paper describes these findings and features ?a cultural framework for identifying and then bridging cultural differences that have a profound effect on learning.?
Full text:

Building Blocks: The First Steps of Creating a Multicultural Classroom
EdChange, Multicultural Pavilion, Saint Paul, Minnesota. (2002).  L. Fish.

?Discovering diversity takes creativity, extra effort, diligence, and courage on the teacher's part. . . .  A multicultural classroom must thrive on . . . differences and use them as a foundation for growth and development.  Differences command work, resolution, openness, and understanding.  Teachers who address these differences and add them to the curriculum will succeed in creating a multicultural classroom that will advance the educational goals of all students.   This essay discusses some of the very basic elements of a multicultural classroom and a brief reflection on observations made at Hackett Middle School in Albany, New York.?
Full text:

Building-Level Assessment:  An Equity Manual
Midwest Equity Assistance Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan. (2000).

?The purpose of this manual is to identify a variety of equity-related assessment instruments that schools can use to develop questionnaires which will provide an opportunity for teachers to assess themselves and to allow faculty, parents, students, and/or support staff to assess their schools for equity.  The item banks can be used by school districts to guide their development of local assessment instruments.  New items can be added to the bank.  Items can also be modified and various combinations of categories can be emphasized for different purposes.  Open-ended questions that provide more information are also suggested for use with questionnaires developed from the item bank.?
Full text:  

Building on Children?s Cultural Assets in Simulated Classroom Performance Environments: Research Vistas in the Communal Learning Paradigm
Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk (CRESPAR),
The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. (2004).
A. W. Boykin, S. T. Coleman, A. J. Lilja, & K. M. Tyler.

?The achievement gap between low-income African American students and their White counterparts remains substantial.  To address this, researchers have begun to examine the impact of culture on cognitive performance among African American students.  . . . The findings from this work suggest that, when aspects of students? home culture are incorporated into academic learning contexts,  strong academic performance and motivation result.  This report presents the results of two experimental studies incorporating the cultural theme of communalism.  For both studies, a general literature review is provided, along with statistical analyses and results  specific to the procedures and measures used in each.?
Full text -- See Report 68.

Classroom Cultural Ecology: The Dynamics of Classroom Life in Schools Serving Low-Income African American Children
Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk (CRESPAR),
The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. (2000).
C. M. Ellison, A. W. Boykin, D. P. Towns, & A. Stokes.

?The purpose of this study was to gain descriptive insights into the routines, practices, perceptions, and interactions that constitute the everyday ecology of classrooms serving African American children from low-income backgrounds. . . . A taxonomic conceptual scheme for examining the realities of what is occurring n classrooms was devised: . . . (a) social/psychological relations; (b) technical core of instruction; (c) physical structure and organizational routines; (d) discipline and classroom management; and (d) attitudes, perceptions, and expectations.  In this work, protocols were obtained from direct classroom observations in 21 elementary school classrooms located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.  Fifty-two observation periods yielded 150 hours of direct observations (among grades 1 through 6).  Thirty-seven students from these classrooms participated in focus group discussions.?   Numerous findings emerged across the taxonomies.
Full text ? See Report 44.

Classroom to Community and Back:  Using Culturally Responsive Standards-Based Teaching to Strengthen Family and Community Partnerships and Increase Student Achievement
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, Oregon. (2005).
S. Saifer, K. Edwards, D.Ellis, L. Ko, & A. Stuczynski.

?This resource guide describes how educators can use the knowledge and culture students bring to school in a standards-based curriculum that supports student success.  Through foundational research, the publication shows teachers and school leaders how culturally responsive standards-based teaching engages all students in learning; builds relationships between the classroom and the outside world; and creates opportunities for families and community members to support student success in and out of school.?
Full text:

Communicating Cross-Culturally:  What Teachers Should Know
The Internet TESL. (2006).  Y. Pratt-Johnson.

?This article looks at the need for teachers to be culturally responsive and competent as schools and classrooms become increasingly linguistically and culturally diverse.  It highlights six points of cultural difference with which all teachers should be aware when teaching students of diverse backgrounds.?
Full text:

Courageous Conversations About Race:
A Field Guide for Achieving Equity in Schools
Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, California. (2005).  G. E. Singleton & C. Linton.

"Given the sensitive issues of race in our nation, schools and school leaders need tools that can illuminate the concerns, guide the discussions, and generate momentum for growth and change.  This book provides the tools and resources needed to move from open dialogue to meaningful action that can make excellence and equity in schools a reality."
For purchase:
Also see the Facilitator?s Guide to Courageous Conversations:

Crossing Over to Canaan: The Journey of New Teachers in Diverse Classrooms

Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, California. (2001).  G. Ladson-Billings

In this book, ?Gloria Ladson-Billings details the real-life stories of eight novice teachers participating in an innovative teacher education program called Teach for Diversity.  She details their struggles and triumphs as they confront challenges in the classroom and respond with innovative strategies that turn cultural strengths into academic assets.  Through their experiences, Ladson-Billings illustrates how good teachers can meet the challenges of teaching students from highly diverse backgrounds -- and find a way to ?cross over to Canaan.?  She offers a model of teaching that focuses on academic achievement, cultural competence, and socio-political consciousness.?
For purchase:
A paper condensed from this book was published in Rethinking Schools Online and is available at:

Cultural Competency (Guidelines for School Leaders)
The School Administrator. (2008).  S. Paz.
American Association of School Administrators.

The author states that ?as school district leaders, it?s up to us to set the tone for a positive school community that embraces diversity and nurtures the hearts and minds of students from all backgrounds.?  His article describes various ways of accomplishing this.?
Full text:

Cultural Identity and Teaching
On Point. (2005).  National Institute for Urban School Improvement,
Arizona State University, Tempe.  K. K. White, S. Zion, & E. Kozleski.

This publication discusses the importance of cultural understandings; describes variation in cultural identity with examples; and shows how teachers can build awareness of their own culture and build/present culture in their classrooms.
Full text ? Scroll down at right:
And see Online Academies:

Culturally Competent Schools: 
Guidelines for Secondary School Principals
National Association of School Psychologists, Bethesda, Maryland. (2006).
M. B. Klotz

This article ?examines how principals can put in place policies and practices that honor the diverse cultures alive in a school.?  Contents include: (a) what is a culturally competent school?; (b) building a culturally competent school; (c) culturally competent checklist for success; and (d) resources.?
Full text ? Click under Consultation:
Also see Culturally Competent Crisis Response and other papers on this page.

Culturally Proficient Inquiry: 
A Lens for Identifying and Examining Educational Gaps

Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, California. (2008). 
R. B. Lindsey, S. M. Graham, R. C. Westphal, & C. L. Jew

?Using the lens of cultural proficiency, the authors lead practitioners through the process of gathering and analyzing data to meet the needs of historically underserved students.  This book provides educators with a critical evaluation process and rubrics to examine why some students are not being educated to their full potential. The chapters carefully guide readers through the steps of analyzing and using data to: (a) encourage discussions about promoting educational equity for all students; (b) create a realistic picture of the cultural and economic diversity of your school; (c) initiate authentic systemic change; and (d) effectively respond to No Child Left Behind legislative mandates.?
For purchase:

Culturally Responsive Instruction: Promoting Literacy in Secondary Content Areas
Learning Point Associates, Naperville, Illinois. (2005).  P. R. Schmidt.

?The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how secondary teachers implement culturally responsive literacy instruction in their content areas.  Culturally responsive instruction makes  connections with students? backgrounds, interests, and experiences to teach the standards-based  curriculum.?  The author discusses seven characteristics of successful implementation of culturally competent instruction.
Full text:

Culturally Responsive Practices for Student Success:  A Regional Sampler
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, Oregon. (2005). 
J. Klump

"This booklet is one in a series of 'hot topics' reports produced by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. . . . Each booklet contains a discussion of research and literature pertinent to the issue, how Northwest schools and programs are addressing the issue, selected resources, and contact information. The purpose of this issue ?is to introduce pre-K?12 educators to the topic of culturally responsive educational practices ? practices that can be defined as 'using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, frames of reference, and performance styles of ethnically diverse students to make learning more relevant and effective for them.'"   The sampler briefly reviews "practices that research indicates can contribute to the academic success of students from diverse racial, cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Then (it takes) a closer look at how Pacific Northwest and Hawaiian State organizations, districts, school leaders, and school staff are responding to the needs of their diverse student populations . . . and provides examples of their culturally responsive strategies."
Full text and topical sections:

Culturally Responsive Schools for Micronesian Immigrant Students
Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL), Honolulu, Hawaii. (2002).  H. Heine.

The Freely Associated States are: ?the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap); the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and the Republic of Palau.  They represent a region that is not well know but that is vastly diverse linguistically, culturally, and geographically.  This briefing paper provides background information about the geography, language, culture, and political history of the Micronesian region.  Extensive information on the Freely Associated States is given in order to put into context the migration of (its) people to the U.S. and its island territories.  The paper closes with a focus on educational challenges facing Micronesian students from the Freely Associated States and offers suggestions for teachers and other educators who work with them. A section of frequently asked questions is also included.?
Full text:

Culturally Responsive Teaching
The Knowledge Loom, Education Alliance at Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island

At this site, ?The New England Equity Assistance Center (EAC) -- a program of The Education Alliance at Brown University -- presents principles, stories, and online resources to support culturally responsive teaching in schools and districts.?
Home page? Culturally Responsive Teaching:

Culturally Responsive Teaching for American Indian Students
ERIC Digest. (2003). C. Pewewardy & P. C. Hammer.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools.
Distributed by Edvantia, Charleston, West Virginia.

?This Digest makes the case that culturally responsive teaching cannot be approached as a recipe or series of steps that teachers can follow to be effective with American Indian and Alaska Native students.   Instead, it relies on the development of certain dispositions toward learners and a holistic approach to curriculum and instruction.  The Digest uses a five-part conceptual framework first derived from the broader multicultural literature by Nawang Phuntsog (1998), and ties these concepts to recent research in American Indian/Alaska Native education.?
Full text:
Cited reference:  Phuntsog, N. (1998, April). The magic of culturally responsive pedagogy: In search of the genie?s lamp in multicultural education.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Diego, CA). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED420632)

Culturally Responsive Teaching:  Theory, Research, and Practice
Teachers College Press, New York City. (2000).   G. Gay

The author ?makes a convincing case for using culturally responsive teaching to improve the school performance of underachieving students of color. She combines insights from multicultural education theory, research, and classroom practice to demonstrate that African, Asian, Latino, and Native American students will perform better, on multiple measures of achievement, when teaching is filtered through their own cultural experiences and frames of reference.  Key components of culturally responsive teaching discussed include teacher caring, teacher attitudes and expectations, formal and informal multicultural curriculum, culturally informed classroom discourse, and cultural congruity in teaching and learning strategies. The personal stories woven throughout enliven the deeply textured scholarly analysis.?
For purchase:

Diversity Within Unity:  Essential Principles for Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society
Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington, Seattle. (2004).
J. A. Banks, P. Cookson, G. Gay, W. D. Hawley, J. J. Irvine,
S. Nieto, & W. G. Stephan.

?What do we know about education and diversity and how do we know it? This two-part question guided the Multicultural Education Consensus Panel that was sponsored by the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington and the Common Destiny Alliance at the University of Maryland. Diversity Within Unity is the product of a four-year project during which the Panel reviewed and synthesized research related to diversity. The panel was supported by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and chaired by James A. Banks. The 12 major findings of the panel, which are called essential principles, constitute this publication. It also contains a Checklist designed to be used by educational practitioners to determine the extent to which their institutions and environments are consistent with the essential principles.?
Full text:

Effects of a Culturally Responsive Teaching Project on Teachers and Students in Selected Kanawha County, West Virginia, Schools
Edvantia, Charleston, West Virginia. (2004).
G. K. Hughes, K. S. Cowley, L. D. Copley, N. L. Finch, M. L. Meehan,
R.C. Burns, P. S. Kusimo, M. C. Keyes, S. R. Orletsky, & D. Holdzkom

The former Appalachian Educational Laboratory (now Edvantia) ?worked with  four schools and district leaders in Kanawha County to improve instruction for all students, particularly those  who are African American.  The collaborative initiative is known as Maximizing the  Achievement of African American Children in Kanawha (MAACK). . . . . (Results showed) that teachers who learned about culturally responsive teaching principles, and who taught a culturally responsive instructional unit developed by Edvantia, created a more positive classroom learning environment and demonstrated better use of class time than teachers in other classrooms studied.  Indeed, the study found that these teachers saved the equivalent of 16.11 days of instructional time by staying on task and by keeping more students on task (exceeding 90 percent) than other teachers.  The study also found that trained teachers who used culturally responsive instructional materials demonstrated a significantly higher quality of instruction and had more success engaging students in interactive instruction than teachers in other classrooms studied.  At the close of the culturally responsive teaching project, these teachers reported having a greater understanding of the causes of achievement gaps, as well as of the importance of culturally responsive teaching strategies in closing achievement gaps.  Finally, researchers found that over the course of the project, students' perceptions of belonging to their school community, their ability to do well academically, and their families' expectations of them all improved.?
Full text and executive summary:
Also see the 2006 book by the principal Kanawha researchers --  It Takes a School: Closing Achievement Gaps by Creating Culturally Responsive Schools.

Empathy and Cultural Competence: Reflections from Teachers of Culturally Diverse Children
Beyond the Journal: Young Children on the Web (2005).  National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington DC.   M. W. Colombo.

?Beginning the journey toward increased cultural competence (the ability to understand diverse perspectives and appropriately interact with members of other cultures in a variety of situations) requires teachers to rethink their assumptions and consider life?s issues through the lenses of people who come from cultural backgrounds different from their own.  The activities most likely to increase cultural competence are those that immerse teachers in meaningful interactions with members of other cultures and promote cultural disequilibrium or a sense of being lost . . . . This article describes one such professional development initiative that combined course work with cultural immersion experiences designed to create this sense of disequilibrium.?
Full text:

Engaging the Discourse of Diversity:  Educators? Frameworks for Working with Linguistic and Cultural Difference
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood. (2002).
Symposium Journals,  United Kingdom.  V. Pacini-Ketchabaw & S. Schecter.

?This article explores ways in which teachers who are committed to working within ethnically and linguistically diverse settings make sense of their professional missions.  (The authors) examine these ways through the lens, or interpretive framework, of scholarly discussions on discourse and subjectivity. (They) present four discourses for understanding diversity . . . encountered in (their) professional development work with teachers in two urban school settings in Ontario, Canada. To represent the core narratives associated with these discourses, (they) use the following templates: (a) difference as deficit; (b) preparing minority students and families to facilitate the school?s agenda; (c) intercultural sensitivity as a pedagogic tool; and(c)  diversity as curriculum.?
Full text:

Everyday Antiracism:  Getting Real About Race in School
New Press, New York City. (2008).  M. Pollock (Ed.)

?Which acts by educators are ?racist? and which are ?antiracist?? How can an educator constructively discuss complex issues of race with students and colleagues? In Everyday Antiracism leading educators deal with the most challenging questions about race in school, offering invaluable and effective advice. . . . Topics range from using racial incidents as teachable moments and responding to the ?n-word? to valuing students? home worlds, dealing daily with achievement gaps, and helping parents fight ethnic and racial misconceptions about their children.  Questions following each essay prompt readers to examine and discuss everyday issues of race and opportunity in their own classrooms and schools.?  Contributors include Beverly Daniel Tatum, Sonia Nieto, and Pedro Noguera.
For purchase:

Grace Abounding: The Core Knowledge Anthology of African-American Literature, Art, and Music
Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, Virginia. (2006).
R. D. Shepherd, M. L. Ford, C. Carter, A. S. Miller, & M. L. Welch (Eds.).

Grace Abounding is ?a definitive textbook for use in language arts and social studies classrooms. Lavishly illustrated, this hardbound, 932-page book showcases masterpiece after masterpiece by African- American authors, artists, activists, and scholars whom every American needs to know. . . . Vetted by leading figures in African-American studies, this new work has lofty goals -- to enable African-American students to view, whole, their cultural heritage from its roots in Africa to the present day and to help all students to appreciate and understand the seminal works of the creative geniuses from that heritage. . . . This book contains complete in-text study apparatus including a comprehensive literary and language arts skills program, discussion and essay questions, detailed footnotes and vocabulary glosses, writing and research activities, and many more special features.  Plus, the book is complemented by an extensive online teacher resource kit,
Grace Abounding home page with online teacher resource kit:
For purchase, and to view some sample contents:

Guidelines for Identifying Bias in Curriculum and Materials
The Safe Schools Coalition, Seattle, Washington (2003).

This guide presents a chart with examples and alternatives to (a) stereotyping; (b) language and terminology; and (c) omission, exclusion, and perspective.
To download:

Leading for Diversity:  How School Leaders Can Improve Interethnic Relations
Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence (CREDE),
University of California, Santa Cruz.  (2001).  R. Henze.
Distributed by the Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC.

Based on 21 case studies across schools in the U.S. with highly diverse student populations, this report shows how school leaders effectively address racial or ethnic conflicts, create positive interethnic environments, and help relationships among diverse groups and individuals flourish. The report offers insights for principals and other school leaders to proactively build safe and respectful learning environments that foster meaningful and challenging education for all students.
For purchase:

Learn-Ed Nations Inventory: A Tool for Improving Schools With American Indian and Alaska Native Students
Northwest Regional Education Laboratory, Portland, Oregon. (2002).

?School communities ? staff, parents, students, and the community ? need to be more aware of how they are and are not meeting the needs of American Indian and Alaska Native students in their school.  That is the purpose for the school inventory tool provided in this booklet.  With knowledge about how a school is doing in various areas that influence student learning, a school community can move forward to create a more inclusive environment for American Indian and Alaska Native students and so create more opportunities for all the students to succeed.?
Full text:

Learning Styles of American Indian/Alaskan Native Students:
A Review of the Literature and Implications for Practice
Journal of American Indian Education. (2002).  Center for Indian Education,
Arizona State University, Tempe.  C. Pewewardy.

?A review of theories, research, and models of the learning styles of American Indian/Alaska Native students reveals that American Indian/Alaska Native students generally learn in ways characterized by factors of social/affective emphasis, harmony, holistic perspectives, expressive creativity, and nonverbal communication.  Underlying these approaches are assumptions that American Indian/Alaska Native students have been strongly influenced by their language, culture, and heritage, and that American Indian/Alaska Native children's learning styles are different?but not deficient.  Implications for interventions include recommendations for instructional practice, curriculum organization, assessment, and suggestions for future research.?
Full text ? Scroll to the last title on the page:

Learning While Black: Creating Educational Excellence for African American Students
The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.  (2001). 
J. E. Hale, with a Foreword by V.P. Franklin.

The author ?argues that educators must look beyond the cliches of urban poverty and teacher training to explain the failures of public education with regard to black students. . . . The solution lies in the classroom, in the nature of the interaction between the teacher and the child.   And the key . . . is the instructional vision and leadership provided by principals.  To meet the needs of diverse learners, the school must become the heart and soul of a broad effort, the coordinator of tutoring and support services provided by churches, service clubs, fraternal organizations, parents, and concerned citizens.  Calling for the creation of the ?beloved community? envisioned by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Hale outlines strategies for redefining the school as the Family, and the broader community as the Village, in which each child is too precious to be left behind.?
For purchase:

Making the Grade: A Racial Justice Report Card
Applied Research Center, Oakland, California. (Undated).

Making the Grade ?is a new tool to assess how your schools measure up to racial equity standards. This easy-to-use computer program walks journalists, parents, students, or teachers through a series of research tasks.  Making the Grade then produces an ?A? through ?F? grade and explains where the school or district is failing their responsibility to equal education.?
To download the Report Card:
Also see the series of dial-in conference calls -- Compact for Racial Justice: An Agenda for Fairness and Unity (upcoming events plus audios, videos, and transcripts of earlier conference calls):

Managing Diverse Classrooms:  How to Build on Students? Cultural Strengths
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Virginia (2008).
C. Rothstein-Fisch & E. Trumbull

This book ?traces the work of seven elementary school teachers in the Los Angeles, California, area who participated in the Building Cultures Project over a seven-year period. This collaborative action research project emerged in response to research that demonstrates the presence of cultural values conflicts in schools. The participating teachers, who each work with large numbers of immigrant Latino students, observed their students, conducted research, and developed new strategies for more culturally appropriate classroom organization and management.?
For purchase:

Multicultural Issues and Special Education Mediation:
An  Audio of Training with C. Broadfield.  (Undated).
CADRE: Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education,
Direction Service Inc, Eugene, Oregon.

?This session focused on the role and effects of cultural diversity in special education mediation.  In addition, (participants) discussed the preparations needed for 21st century competency to do justice to this change in skills for a school system that is no longer all Euro-centric and no longer Judeo-Christian.?
The below audios are also available:
Interest-Based Negotiation ? A Culturally Competent Model:
Making Mediation Bilingual and Bicultural for Spanish-Speaking Populations:

Narratives on Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Personal Responses to the Standardized Curriculum
Current Issues in Education. (2005).  Arizona State University.
P. B. Baker & L. W. Digiovanni.

?As curriculum objectives become more ?standardized,? pedagogical strategies that reach diverse populations become more important, not less, as some practitioners might be prone to believe. Through the use of narratives, (the authors) have found that students achieve greater understandings of curriculum as well as find culturally relevant ways of applying curriculum to previous knowledge. . . . Classroom narratives from students and teachers where culturally relevant pedagogical practices have been implemented are the focus of this article.?
Full text:

Online Modules and Materials:  Diversity
IRIS Center for Training Enhancements
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.

Funded by the federal Office of Special Education Programs, the IRIS Center is placing special education content into interactive web-based learning modules. IRIS modules incorporate the award winning Star Legacy model which integrates a problem-solving approach that is initiated with a challenge for students to resolve.   Case studies, activities, information briefs, an online dictionary, and other resources are also offered.  All materials are freely available at the website.  Originally developed as preservice enhancements, the IRIS materials are also used for professional development in many States.  IRIS offers two modules on diversity:  (a) Cultural and Linguistic Differences: What Teachers Should know;   and (b) Teaching and Learning in New Mexico: Considerations for Diverse Student Populations.  Each goes through five learning phases: the Challenge; Thoughts on the Challenge; Perspectives and Resources (learning materials); Assessment Questions; and Wrapup. 
IRIS home page:
Click on Diversity and select All Materials:
Also see En español -- 6 online modules, 5 activities, and 6 class discussions:

RaceBridges for Schools
Angels Studio, Chicago, Illinois

RaceBridges for Schools offers resources to help teachers and administrators create a school climate that fosters knowledge of and respect for diversity.  The lesson plans on this site will assist teachers in building community in their classrooms while honoring the wide range of differences among their students.  The resources for administrators offer suggestions for providing diversity awareness activities to faculty and staff and for designing institutional structures to address the diversity of the school community.
RaceBridges home page:
RaceBridges for Schools:

Recommended Multicultural and Anti-Bias Books for Children
A World of Difference® Institute, Anti-Defamation League, New York City.

?This site offers a list of children's books is intended for educators, parents and other caregivers of early childhood and elementary aged children. . . . Reading multicultural literature has the potential to foster children's understanding and respect for their own and others' cultural groups, to develop empathy, and, in general, to begin the lifelong process of learning about multiple perspectives and experiences.? Types of books covered are: (a) biography; (b) cultural and religious groups; (c) customs and traditions; (d) families and friends; (e) folktales, legends, and poems; (f) prejudice and discrimination.  The Institute also ?provides hands-on training to help children and adults challenge prejudice and discrimination and learn to live and work successfully and civilly in an increasingly diverse world.?
Home page:

Teaching Urban Learners:  Culturally Responsive Strategies for Developing Academic and Behavioral Competence
Research Press, Champaign, Illinois. (2005). G. Cartledge & Y-y. Lo.

This book ?is recommended for K-5 classroom teachers, special educators, and counseling staff.  It is divided into four parts: (a) culturally responsive instruction, (b) effective academic instruction, (c) improving social competencies, and (d) parental involvement.  The book?s 11 chapters detail important strategies, such as providing effective academic interventions; teaching with high expectations; keeping students academically engaged in meaningful learning activities; monitoring progress; providing effective schoolwide behavioral interventions; and establishing positive relationships with families.  The authors provide case examples and step-by-step instructions to help educators apply the strategies presented.?
For purchase:

The Culturally Proficient School:  An Implementation Guide for School Leaders
WestEd, San Francisco, California.  Published by Corwin Press. (2005).
R. B. Lindsey, L. M. Roberts, & F. Campbell Jones

?The Culturally Proficient School
provides the practical strategies, tools, and resources needed to successfully implement cultural proficiency throughout an organization. Providing many opportunities for discussion and contemplation, this book features: (a) reflective activities for individuals or groups; (b) sample conversations around issues of diversity, multiculturalism, equity entitlement, and racism; (c) typical behaviors associated with culturally proficient leadership, organized around the responsibilities of school leaders; (d) professional development activities.?
For purchase:

The Diversity Kit:  An Introductory Resource for Social Change in Education
The Education Alliance at Brown University, (2002).
Providence, Rhode Island

"The Diversity Kit is a review of research in the Education Alliance's national leadership area of teaching diverse learners. . . . This publication brings together current research on human development and cultural diversity.  It explores issues of diversity in education that are essential for schools and teachers who are committed to quality education for all students."
Full text and downloadable sections:
Also see  The Teacher?s Guide to Diversity: Building a Knowledge Base (2005).  Scroll down -- Titles are in alphabetical order:

The Role of Cultural Factors in School-Relevant Cognitive Functioning: Description of Home Environmental Factors, Cultural Orientations, and Learning Preferences
Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk (CRESPAR),
The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. (2000).
A. W. Boykin & C. T. Bailey

?This report examines certain home cultural factors, cultural orientations, and learning preferences of African American school children from low-income backgrounds in order to document the relationship of prior cultural socialization experiences to enhanced cognitive, performance, and motivational outcomes. The authors attempt to offer a conceptual basis for how certain Afro-cultural themes ? Movement, Communalism, and Verve ? in low-income African American children?s proximal experiences outside of school are transmitted and acquired, and the consequences of such acquisitions on their orientation and preferences for learning.  Specifically, this research documents the cultural integrity residing in the experiences of African American children from low-income backgrounds and offers ways to proactively build upon these assets for enhancing school achievement.?
Full text ? See Report 43.
Also see related paper -- Report 42.

Through Ebony Eyes:  What Teachers Need to Know but Are Afraid to Ask About African American Students
Wiley,/Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. (2007). G. L. Thompson.

?Solidly based on research conducted with 175 educators, Through Ebony Eyes provides information and strategies that will help teachers increase their effectiveness with African American students.  Written in conversational language, Through Ebony Eyes offers a wealth of examples and personal stories that clearly demonstrate the cultural differences that exist in the schools and offers a three-part, long-term professional development plan that will help teachers become more effective.?
Book review ? E-Journal of Teaching and Learning in Diverse Settings:
For purchase:

Understanding the Relationship Among American Primary-Grade Teachers and Korean Mothers: The Role of Communication and Cultural Sensitivity in the Linguistically Diverse Classroom
Early Childhood Research and Practice (2003). Early Childhood and Parenting Collaborative, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Y. Yang & M. B. McMullen.

?The primary goal of this study was to examine the nature of the relationship between American teachers and Korean parents, particularly in terms of effectiveness of communication and cultural sensitivity in exchanging information. Much was learned from extensive interviews with four teachers and five Korean mothers about their perceptions and concerns, best methods of communicating, and expectations about the roles of teachers and parents.  From what was learned, suggestions were made to facilitate relationships between American teachers and Korean parents as well as parents and teachers of other non-native English-speaking children.?
Full text:

Unlearning ?Indian? Stereotypes: DVD
Originally produced by the Council on Interracial Books for Children;
Enhanced by Rethinking Schools in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. (2008).

?Narrated by Native American children, this DVD teaches about racial stereotypes and provides an introduction to Native American history through the eyes of children.  In addition to the digitalized filmstrip, this DVD also includes a transcript with teaching notes; a folder of valuable photos that can be reprinted or used in digital presentations; two articles; a list of internet sources; and a list of select books.?
For purchase:

What Every Teacher Should Know About Diverse Learners.
Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, Virginia. (2003).  D. W. Tileston.

?This compact volume covers these topics: (a) past, present, and future influences of student diversity; (b) understanding diversity in terms of modalities, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity; (c) recognizing the signs of bias, including linguistic bias, stereotyping, exclusion, selectivity, and isolation; (d) choosing the teaching strategies that make the most difference by focusing on the learner's attention, cognition, memory, and self-system; and (e) setting high expectations for learners.?
For purchase:

Return to main menu: Achievement Gaps, Diversity, and  Disproportionality

This information is an attempt to gather wide-ranging information in one place, to convey what others have accomplished, and to make valuable resources readily accessible.  Information is presented in the language of the developer, publisher, distributor, or author.  The Southeast Regional Resource Center has no ownership of anything described in this library.

Readers should review the copyright and distribution policies shown at the websites of the sources.  SERRC is not the source of any document in this library, but simply conveys information to show the availability of these resources.

The opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position of policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and no endorsement of the U.S. Department of Education should be inferred.  Information from sources funded by the U.S. Department of Education is likely to have been vetted by the Department; information from other sources is unlikely to have been vetted.

Last Updated ( Wednesday, 22 April 2009 )

Copyright 2008. All rights reserved.